|ROSALIND BRODSKY TIME TRAVEL RESEARCH PROJECTS|
|Research Project - #PRN/33 Operation Swan Lake|
Mute Swan was introduced to North America, Australia, South Africa, China,
and New Zealand after being bred in the British Isles to Mongolia. Most
winter within their breeding range while others go South in the Southern
U.S.A., Mediterranean and Southwest Asia. The female lays four to eight
greenish blue eggs in a nest of huge piles of reed stems, leaves, roots,
rushes, and sticks. This material is located on a bank or an island, or
in shallow water. Both birds gather the material, but the female builds
the nest. Incubation is usually by the female alone within 35-40 days.
Mute swans can weigh as much as 20 pounds, and are one of the largest
birds known to the British Isles. Their normal life span is 6-7 years,
but there have been records of Mutes over 20 years old.
Black- Necked Swan migrates north in the southern winter after breeding
in the southern third of South America and the Falkland Islands. Generally
those living in the Falkland Island area do not migrate. The female swan
lays from four to eight cream colored eggs. After building the large bulky
nest of plant material, the female incubates the eggs for 36 days. The
average weight of a Black- Necked Swan is 9-12 lbs..
average weight of the male Coscoroba Swan is 11 lbs. Females weigh an
average of 8-8 1/2 lbs.. They breed in the southern third of South America
and in the Falkland Islands. If a bad winter occurs, they may move north
to Chile, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. The females lay from four to seven
creamy white eggs. The nest are made up of mud and aquatic vegetation
near the edge of the water. The female incubates alone for a period of
35 days. These swans have pure white feathers with a pink beak and pink
Whooper Swan winters in Great Britain, Northern Europe, Asia Minor, Northern
India, China, Japan, and Korea. The Pin usually lays from 4-6 white eggs.
They build a bulky nest of moss, aquatic grasses, and some mud on small
islets, close to pools with boggy areas, and along calm parts of rivers.
The same nest may be built up and used for many years. The female incubates
the eggs for 31-40 days. These swans are white with a bright yellow beak.
As might be expected from the name- "The Hooper" is very noisy. This species
has recently been taken off of the endangered species list. The Whooper
swan nests for the first time when it is 3-4 years old. The birds pair
off when they are 2 years old. Although most swan pairs are for life,
this breed has an unusual 6% divorce rate!
Trumpeter Swans breed in North America, southern interior Alaska, Alberta,
British Columbia, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Generally they remain in
the breeding area until the water is frozen. Alaska's population of Trumpeter
Swans will migrate to the coast of British Columbia. The female lays four
to eight white eggs. Their nests are made from sedge and other aquatic
plants on top of muskrat lodges surrounded by water. Occasionally theses
nests are on marshy ground far from the open water. The incubation period
for the eggs is from 33-37 days. It is known as "The Trumpeter," because
of it's unique call.
Black Australian Swan's breeding area is in Australia. The Cobb generally
will weigh up to 14 lbs, while the female weighs around 12 lbs. Introduced
to New Zealand and China these swans aren't migratory and tend to wander,
pending weather conditions. The female lays four to ten pale green eggs.
They build their nests in colonies. The site for these nests is chosen
frequently on a sedge island in a lake or lagoon. Incubation is shared
by males and females for about 34-40 days. These Swans are the most social
of the swans and during the breeding season will often nest in loose colonies.
Most other swans will not tolerate other pairs anywhere near their nests.
average weight of the female is 13 1/2 pounds and males are 15 1/2. Their
breeding area is in the North America tundra, Alaska to the Hudson Bay
area. They are also bred in China. The Whistler Swans winter along both
the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts and southern China. Making nests on tundra
along shores of lakes or ponds, and occasionally on island. The female
lays from three to five white eggs, which take 30-32 days to incubate.
These swans are white with a black beak and a yellow dot below the eye.
Normally swans mate once a year and are very protective of their territory
during this time. Swans mate with one partner for life and don't mate
outside their own species.
The Bewick Swan is native to Northern Russia from the Kanin Delta to the Lena Delta. The Swan has also migrated to parts of Japan and winters in the British Isles, Northern Europe, Denmark, and Ireland. Their nests are generally made on small islands in river estuaries and lakes, or near tundra pools. They usually lay three to five eggs, which are incubated by the female alone for 29-30 days. Bewick swans pair up for life and never divorce. The death of one partner, usually leads to the death of the other.